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Thyroid glands are butterfly-shaped glands that are located in front of the trachea (wind pipe) below the voice box (larynx). Thyroid glands produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyroine (T3). These hormones play an important role in regulating body temperature, energy, body’s use of other hormones and vitamins, regulate metabolic rate and also helps in the growth and maturation of body tissues.

Over-or-under-function of the thyroid gland results in thyroid disorders. Thyroid disorder sometimes leads to enlargement of the thyroid gland. Generally, women are more likely than men to have thyroid disorder, especially after pregnancy and menopause. Few of the thyroid disorders include:

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Hypothyroidism is the condition when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. This slows down the body's functions like metabolism. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's disease. In people with Hashimoto's disease, the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid which further damages the gland so that it does not make enough hormones.

Hypothyroidism can also be caused by:

  • Treatment of Hyperthyroidism (radioiodine)
  • Radiation treatment of certain cancers
  • Thyroid removal

Hypothyroidism can be treated with supplements of the thyroid hormone for the rest of your life.


This is also called as over active thyroid. It is the condition in which the thyroid gland produces excessive amount of thyroid hormones. Due to this, the body metabolism is increased resulting in nervousness, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, sweating, weight-loss etc.

Hyperthyroidism can be treated by antithyroid drugs, radioiodine or surgery. Treatment kills the thyroid cells that produce thyroid hormones and this may sometimes lead to permanent hypothyroidism. Removal of thyroid gland also might cause permanent hypothyroidism.


Unusual enlargement of thyroid gland is referred to as goiter. Goiter is more common in women, than in men. Goiter may happen for a short period of time and eventually decrease without any treatment. This may also be symptoms of other thyroid diseases that require treatment. Few causes of goiter include Hashimoto’s disease, Grave’s disease, thyroid cancer or nodules.

Thyroid Cancer

It is the cancerous condition which occurs in the thyroid cells. Abnormal growth in the thyroid cells is referred to as thyroid cancer. The etiology of thyroid cancer is not clear. The possible causes could be DNA damage or exposure to radiations. Symptoms of thyroid cancer include lumps or swelling in the neck, trouble in swallowing, breathing and pain in the neck and ears. Biopsy helps in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Treatment of thyroid cancer depends upon the type and stage of thyroid cancer the person is suffering from. Thyroid cancer can be treated by surgery or radioactive iodine treatment.

Thyroid Nodules

A thyroid nodule is a swelling or formation of lumps in the thyroid gland. The nodule may be solid or filled with fluid or blood. You may have just one thyroid nodule or many. These are most commonly seen in women when compared to men. Thyroid nodules are not always serious, as they are most of the times non-cancerous (benign) and does not cause any symptoms. But, in case of any symptoms observed, one must consult a doctor.

Parotid Disorders

Salivary glands are present in and around mouth and the throat regions. The three major types of salivary glands include parotid glands, Submandibular glands and Sublingual glands. Apart from these glands, there are many tiny glands located around the lips, buccal mucosa and linings in mouth and throat.

Salivary glands are involved in making saliva which is very important to moisten the mouth, help in digestion, swallowing and protects teeth against bacteria.

The disorders which occur when there is a problem in the salivary glands or the ducts are referred to as parotid disorders or salivary gland disorders. The most common cause for salivary gland problems are blocked salivary glands.

Few of the salivary gland disorders which cause clinical symptoms include:

  • SIALOLITHIASIS:This occurs when there are stones formed from the calcium deposits. These stones obstruct the salivary glands which lead to the blocking of salvia flow, partially or completely.
  • SIALADENITIS:This is an infectious condition caused by bacteria usually seen in elderly people who have salivary gland stones.
  • VIRAL INFECTIONS: Mumps, flu, Coxsackie viruses, echovirus and cytomegalovirus infections could make the salivary glands enlarge.
  • CYSTS:These are tiny fluid-filled sacs. Cysts can sometimes be seen in babies by birth due to ear problems developed before the birth. Also, other types of cysts can form in the major or minor salivary glands in later stages of life. These cysts may result from traumatic injuries, infections, or salivary gland stones or tumors.

Salivary Gland Tumors

  • Benign Tumors: These Are Noncancerous Tumors Occur Most Commonly In The Parotid Gland. The Benign Parotid Tumor Generally Appears As A Slow-Growing, Painless Lump At The Back Of The Jaw, Just Below The Earlobe. Risk Factors Of Benign Parotid Gland Tumors Include Radiation Exposure And Possibly Smoking.
  • Malignant Tumors:These Are Cancerous Tumors Which Are Rare. The Only Known Risk Factors For Malignant Salivary Gland Cancers Are Sjogren's Syndrome And Exposure To Radiation.
  • VIRAL INFECTIONS: Mumps, flu, Coxsackie viruses, echovirus and cytomegalovirus infections could make the salivary glands enlarge.
  • Sjogren's Syndrome :This Is A Chronic Autoimmune Disease Which Is Caused When The Body’s Immune System Target Healthy Cells In Moisture-Producing Glands, Such As The Salivary, Sweat, And Oil Glands. This Is Most Commonly Seen In Women Suffering With Autoimmune Disorder.

Causes of Salivary Gland Disease:

  • Dehydration
  • Decreased food intake
  • Use of medications such as antihistamines, blood pressure medications, psychiatric medications and other medication that can decrease saliva production.

Diagnosis Of Salivary Gland Disease

Salivary gland disorders can be diagnosed by performing the following tests:

  • An X-ray, CT scan or MRI can help diagnose thyroid stones or tumors
  • Biopsy helps determine cancerous tumor.
  • Salivary function tests, eye tests and blood tests are performed to diagnose Sjogren's syndrome
  • Sialogram X-ray helps identify problems in the salivary ducts.

Treatment Of Salivary Gland Diseases

Treatment depends upon the type and extent of diseases. Few of the treatment options include:

  • For the treatment of salivary gland infections, antibiotics are prescribed.
  • Cysts:Cysts in smaller size drain out without any treatment but in case of larger cysts, surgery is required. Ultrasound waves can be used to destroy large stones into small pieces.
  • Parotidectomy: this is a surgery performed to remove the parotid gland, in case of a tumor, a chronic infection or a blocked salivary gland.
  • Benign tumors are removed by surgery or radiation therapies.

Why BSR Hospital?

BSR is a renowned ENT (ear, nose, and throat) hospital located in Secunderabad with full-time otolaryngologists. BSR staffs the best ENT specialists like Dr. B. Shanker Rao, MS, DLO, FICS and Dr. B. Kalyan Chakravarthy, MS ENT / Head and Neck Surgeon, who are highly qualified with extensive knowledge and experience in problems related to ENT.

Our ENT physicians are specialized in performing minimally invasive procedures with advanced techniques facilitating the quickest and safest post-op recovery. The diagnosis and treatment are quick as the hospital is equipped with an in-house laboratory for diagnostic tests. The hospital is equipped with emergency care facility enabling patients to receive immediate consultations and prevent delay.

A quick call can help you get an appointment for a consultation. Call - 040-2784-8166 / 90593-11554.

Have questions or need an appointment for any of your ENT problems ?

Call : 040-27848166 / 9059311554

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